Tsuikahô no Tsuika 118: Regarding the Outlaws

Translated by Chris Bovberg

Item: “Regarding the outlaws of Suzukayama {Ise Province} and Ōeyama {Tanba Province}, the jito of the area shall exercise authority and suppress them. If {the jito} struggle to stop them, the jito shall be replaced and you {the Rokuhara tandai} shall keep the peace. This shall be announced to the corresponding jito and issue a report {confirming that this has been transmitted}.” By this command, the directive is thus. 1

En’ou First Year (1239), Seventh Month, Twenty-Sixth Day

Former Governor of Musashi {Hojo} Yasutoki (cipher)

Former Provisional Director of the Repair Agency {Hojo} Tokifusa (cipher)

Lord Governor of Sagami

Lord Governor of Echigo [Hojo Tokimori]
  1. This was, at least nominally, the command of the shogun.

Original Text 原文

一 鈴鹿山(鈴鹿山并大江山悪賊事、為近辺地頭之沙汰、可令相鎮也、若難停止者、改補其仁、可有静謐計也、以此趣相触便宜地頭等、可被申散状者、依仰執達如件、

 延応元年七月廿六日     前武蔵守泰時判




Kundoku 訓読

一つ 鈴鹿山(すずかやま)并びに大江山(おおえやま)の悪賊(あくぞく)の事、近辺の地頭之沙汰として、相鎮め(あいしずめ)せしむべき也。若し停止しがたくんば、其の仁を改補(かいほ)し、静謐(せいひつ)の計らい有るべき也。此の趣を以て便宜の地頭等に相触れ、散状(さんじょう)を申さるべし。てへれば、仰せに依り執達件の如し。

 延応元年七月廿六日     前武蔵守泰時判




Modern 現代語訳


 1239年7月26日 延応元年七月廿六日     





Tsuikahô no Tsuika 54: Regarding wagering on sugoroku with rice fields

Translated by Chris Bovberg

[Sometime before twelfth month, 1232]

Item: Regarding wagering on sugoroku with holdings {including} rice fields

The prohibition on the crime of gambling is already strict. However, there are frequent rumors that in recent years [there are those who] not only disobey this prohibition, but also wager rice fields. Henceforth, the ban shall be obeyed. If there is any violation, it shall be immediately treated as a major crime and the wager confiscated.

Original Text 原文

一 以田地所領、為双六賭事


Kundoku 訓読


一つ 田地所領を以て、双六のかけとなす事


Modern 現代語訳




Tsuikahô 737: On hawking

Translated by Dan Sherer and Emily Warren

As to the matter of Hawking:

Even though we have repeatedly and strictly banned this, we hear reports that violations are common. Those who are discovered {hawking} will have a portion of their holdings confiscated. When there is a complaint between housemen (such as land stewards) the punishment will be {summarily} carried out without regard to the existence of animosity {between the reporter and the accused}. Next, as to hawking for shrine offerings, even on shrine holdings, 1 this is strictly forbidden by anyone other than shrine priests. However, in the case of the heads of the Misayama festival and the Fifth Month Rite at the Suwa Shrine, 2 as this is a special case, they are exempt from the ban when in the province of Shinano. In other provinces it is forbidden. Further, as to the selling of {hawks}, it is as above. Order the Board of Retainers to diligently inform the military governors of this. Next, as to keeping hawks in Kamakura, 3 this is forbidden, as above. 4

Original Text 原文

一 鷹狩事






Kundoku 訓読

訓読 一 鷹狩たかがりの事

 度々厳制げんせいの処、あまね違犯いはんの由、其の聞こえあり。露顕ろけんせしむるの輩は、所領を分かち召さるべきなり。かつが敵対てきたい有無うむわず、地頭・御家人 相互そうごにこれを差し申すにき、其の沙汰あるべし。ついで供祭ぐさいの鷹の事、神領しんりょうたりといえども、社司しゃしの外、固くこれを停止ちょうじすべし。但し諏方社すわしゃ御射山みさやま五月会さつきえ頭人とうにんの事、他に異るの間、信濃の国においては、制のかぎりにあらず。他の国にいたりては、これを禁制すべし。次売買ばいばい在所ざいしょの事、同前どうぜん、且厳密げんみつに諸国の守護人に相触あいふれるべきの旨、侍所さむらいどころ仰沙汰おおせざたせららるべし。次鎌倉中鷹を繋ぐ事、停止すべきの由、同前、

Modern 現代語



  1. Hawks could be used to catch offerings for shrines, or what was caught could be sold to get shrine offerings.

  1. Suwa Shrine festivals were connected with hunting and associated deities.

  1. Literally, “the tying of hawks” because a cord attached to the hawk’s leg was wrapped around a bar where it rested.

  1. This entry seems to be a clarification of an earlier law (see #251) where shrine priests were permitted to do hawking. Now, this later law has clarified that only these priests in this location can hawk to supply certain rites.

Tsuikahô 736: On kidnapping and selling people

Translated by Kaitlin Forgash

Item: Regarding kidnappers and selling people

As for the aforementioned people, they shall be punished for their crimes in accordance with the royal law. However, it is said that in the markets of Kamakura and the various provinces there are many who specialize in this business. In the various provinces, order the military governors and stewards to punish {them} without fail. In Kamakura, they should be branded on the face.

Original Text 原文

一 勾引人、々売事


Kundoku 訓読

一 勾引人ひとかどい人売ひとうりの事


Modern 現代語訳

ー 誘拐(ゆうかい)と人を売るものについて


Tsuikahô 570: On temple donations

Translated by Sachiko Kawai and Matthew Keller

[Kōan 7 (1285), 11th month, 27th day]

Item: Concerning the repair of the various temples in Kamakura and land holding 1 donations {for the temples}

It has been reported that although the five Boards of Co-adjudicators 2 were earlier ordered {by the Board of Councilors} 3 to deliver a decision {on the above matters}, they have not. As for the repairs, the heads {of the Boards of Co-adjudicators} are to investigate, and diligently report the situation. Inform all that when there is only minor damage, it is the responsibility of the {temple} directors to take care of the repairs. As to the matter of land holdings, quickly report the decision. Next, as for the Hokkedō, 4 so that {the head of} the fifth {Board of Co-adjudicators} 5 may attain merit through the repair of the hall, he is to be in charge of its repair. Additionally, the same will be done for the Shin Shakadō. 6 As for {the remainder of} Daijiji, 7 the repairs will be managed by the third Board of Co-adjudicators.

Original Text 原文

一 鎌倉中諸堂修理并寄進所領事  〈弘安七 十一 廿七〉





Kundoku 訓読

一 鎌倉中諸堂修理并びに寄進所領の事  〈弘安七 十一 廿七〉


Modern 現代語訳

一 鎌倉中の諸堂の修理および{寺に}寄進された所領の事  〈弘安七 十一 廿七〉

 五方引付に {当事者たちに} 決定したことを言い渡しなさいと、{評定衆(将軍)から} 先日命令をされたのに、まだそれがなされていない、ということである。修理の事は、{それぞれの引付の} 長官が実態を調査して、厳密に報告するようにということと、少し破損している箇所などは、{寺の}別当の担当として修理すべきであるということを、{寺に} 広く伝えるように。所領の事については、急速に判決を言い渡すように。次に、{頼朝の} 法花堂の事は、五番引付の長官の担当として、造営の功績を成し遂げたので、五番引付において、命令を伝えるように。また次に、{大慈寺の中の} 新釈迦堂の事についても、同様である。大慈寺{全体の部分} については、三番引付が命令を伝えるように

  1. 寄進所領 kishin shoryō — this refers to the rights for the income from lands which were donated for the purpose of repairing individual temples. The important change here is that the income generated from these land holdings would now be given to the temples.

  1. The hiketsukeshū is a government office which has jurisdiction over lawsuits involving control of land. Established in 1249 with three Boards of Co-adjudicators, in 1252 the number of Boards was increased to five to help take care of lawsuits.

  1. While not explicitly stated in the document, it is the “Board of Councilors” (評定衆 hyōjōshū) which originally ordered the hiketsukeshū to deliberate and act on these matters.

  1. This Hokkedō refers to the temple built next to Minamoto no Yoritomo’s tomb to memorize his death.

  1. Antei Munekage 安達宗景, son of Antei Yasumori 安達泰盛. Funinbu 6, Kantō hyōjōden Gunsho ruijū, 群書類従「関東評定伝」

  1. This Shakadō (Śākyamuni Hall) was established inside Daijiji in 1226 for the third death anniversary of Hōjō Yoshitoki. “Daijiji 大慈寺” in Nihon rekishi chimei daikei 日本歴史地名大系.

  1. This temple was established by the third shogun Minamoto Sanetomo (源実朝, 1191-1219) to venerate his father Yoritomo 源頼朝. According to the Azuma kagami, work was begun on the temple in 1212. In 1226, Hōjō Tokifusa (北条時房, 1175-1240) erected a three storied pagoda for the sake of his sister Masako (北条政子, 1157-1225), who was also the wife of Yoritomo. From that time onward, the temple seems to have been supported by the Hōjō. The aforementioned Shin Shakadō is within the Daijiji temple grounds, however for reasons unclear its maintenance is under the jurisdiction of the fifth Board of Co-adjudicators instead of the third. Nihon rekishi chimei daikei 日本歴史地名大系.