Taiki: Kôji 2 {1143} 1.14 Entry

Translated by Niels van der Salm, Tatyana Kostochka, Yoshiko Kainuma, and Sachiko Kawai

Kōji 2 1.14 Entry

Fourteenth day. Mizunoe tora 1 . At the Hour of the Rooster , the Royal Secretary and Junior Controller of the Left 2 Minamoto no Moroyoshi 3 came. His message was conveyed to me: “This is about dismissing (Minamoto no) Narimasa 4 from his posts. First, I went to see the Minister of the Left [Minamoto no Arihito] 5 , but he had left for Ninnaji 6 , so I came to you 7 .” Quickly, I got dressed with a cap and dress cloak and met with him [Minamoto no Moroyoshi]. He said:

On the twelfth day [two days ago], in the guard post at Toba Detached Palace, Lieutenant 8 {and provincial Governor of Owari} Sir 9 Narimasa had a row with former provincial Governor of Yamashiro {Fujiwara no} Yorisuke 10 . Narimasa drew his sword and sliced up Yorisuke’s face. Not only is it no insignificant crime, but there has never yet been anyone at or above the fifth rank to have injured someone with a blade. Narimasa must be quickly dismissed.

I gave my approval. Moroyoshi told me:

The ruling retired monarch [Toba] declared 11 : ‘Dismissal and suspension have the same result. Since dismissal is the harsher punishment, he should be ordered to be dismissed.’ The ruling retired monarch also said: ‘Having been dismissed, he will naturally no longer be allowed into the royal presence, but since this is an unprecedented event, {his name} should also be immediately stricken from the duty-board 12 .’ I , therefore, made a visit to the royal palace and struck his name from the duty-board of {the monarch’s 13 } royal intimates.

{I, Yorinaga, asked,} “Should he be removed from both of his posts? 14 ” He answered, “The regent directed that after a royal order to remove him from both of his posts is issued, Ruling Retired Monarch should ultimately make the decisions.” {So, I} sent to summon Senior Secretary of the Council of State Sir [Nakahara] Moroyasu and delivered this order. Moroyasu asked, “In a normal circumstance, a royal order should not be drafted, how about this time?” I answered, “This is an abnormal situation, so we should set an example by drafting a royal order to punish unruly subjects and dangerous nobles 15 .”

Moroyasu promptly drew up a royal order and issued it to the two ministries.

I asked, “According to my old memos〈which I recorded as reminders,〉is it not the job of secretaries of the Council of State to draft and issue royal orders to the two ministries, but in this kind of circumstance, should {someone else} also issue it to the two ministries?”

Moroyasu said, “That is an older procedure. Recently, secretaries of the Council of State issue royal orders to the two ministries.”〈the two ministeries here are meant as follows: when dealing with a civil official, {a royal order} should be issued to the Ministry of Personnel; when dealing with a military official, {a royal order} should be issued to the Ministry of Military Affairs.〉

Moroyoshi sent a messenger and informed me that “Ruling Retired Monarch ordered, ‘Remove him from both of his posts.’”

Sir Minamoto no Narimasa of the junior fourth rank lower, holding court posts lower than his rank 16 —Provisional Junior Captain of the Inner Palace Right Guards cum Owari Provincial Governor Inner Minister {Fujiwara no Yorinaga} orders. “I received a royal order saying ‘On the twelfth day {of this month}, the person above , by sword in his own hand, injured Sir Fujiwara no Yorisuke, who had court rank but no post 17 . Even by searching through past precedents, we cannot find such a crime {by a courtier of his rank}. Remove him from both of his current posts.’”

Kōji 2 1.14

Received by
Sir Nakahara Moroyasu, Director of the Grains Bureau 18 cum
Senior Secretary of the Council of State and
Assistant Professor {of the Bureau of the Palace University}

  1. The 39th day in the sexagenary cycle.

  1. William and Helen McCullough translate this title as “Lesser Controller of the Left.” We adopted most of this translation but changed “Lesser” to “Junior” for clarity. See William and Helen McCullough, A Tale of Flowering Fortunes (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1980).

  1. Minamoto no Moroyoshi 源師能 (dates unknown).

  1. Minamoto no Narimasa 源成雅 (dates unknown). Narimasa has a close relationship with the regental family. For example, his sister married Yorinaga. Furthermore, Narimasa’s aunt (his father’s sister) married Yorinaga’s father, Tadazane. (USC Kambun Workshop 2019)

  1. Minamoto no Arihito 源有仁 (1103-1147).

  1. Ninnaji is a Buddhist temple in Western Kyoto that belongs to the Shingon School. Construction began in 886 at the command of Kōkō Tennō and ended in 888 during the reign of Uda Tennō, who named it Ninnaji after the name of the current regnal era. The temple had close ties to the royal family until the 19th century because it became customary for a son of the reigning sovereign to take up the post of head priest of Ninnaji.

  1. The Minister of the Left is higher in rank than Yorinaga, who is a Palace Minister, so Yorinaga got this message because a person of higher rank was not available and he was the next highest ranking official.

  1. The lowest rank of general officer. (日本国語大辞典)

  1. Ason, the most coveted hereditary title of the time. (USC Kambun Workshop 2007)

  1. Fujiwara no Yorisuke 藤原頼輔 (1112-1186).

  1. Toba Tennō 鳥羽天皇 (1103-1156, r. 1107-1123). The character tei 帝, which is a signifier for the ruling monarch, is added to “retired monarch” in the Japanese text because Toba was serving in administrative capacity despite being officially retired. See Hashimoto Yoshihiko, “Hōtei to Hōōtei 法皇と法皇帝” in Heian kizoku shakai no kenkyū 平安貴族社会の研究 (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan, 1976), 487-491, for more information about ruling retired monarchs.

  1. The duty-board is a registry listing who holds what post and who has what kinds of permissions. Being dismissed did not automatically mean that the person’s name would be removed from the duty-board. Being dismissed and having his name removed constitutes a more severe punishment because it strips Narimasa of his membership in the government.

  1. Konoe Tennō 近衛天皇 (1139-1155, r. 1141-1155).

  1. These two posts here referred to those held by Narimasa, that of provisional junior captain of the Inner Palace Right Guards and the governorship of Owari Province.

  1. This is ranshin zokushi 乱臣賊士 in the original. According to the Digital Daijisen Dictionary, there is a compound noun, ranshin zokushi (乱臣賊子), which means “unruly subjects and children who harm their parents.” Based on this noun, Yorinaga possibly invented a new compound with the same pronunciation, 乱臣賊士, in order to fit this context. This sentence ends with the character 者, and although it often refers to hearsay, here it serves to close Yorinaga’s quotation. (USC Kambun Workshop 2019)

  1. There is a character gyō 行 between Narimasa’s court rank and two his posts. When gyō is used in someone’s title, it means that the person’s position is regarded to be lower than his rank. (USC Kambun Workshop 2008)

  1. Sanmi is a courtier who had rank but did not have an official post. (USC Kambun Workshop 2008)

  1. The Ōi no tsukasa or Ōi ryō 大炊寮 is often translated as the Palace Kitchen Bureau, but the bureau was specifically responsible for grains procurement. Other kitchen-related bureaus are frequented translated the same way, which can lead to confusion between the various offices, so it is more useful to call it the Grains Bureau. This translation is inspired by Francine Hérail’s, “Office de l’Approvisionnement en Grains” for Ōiryō. See Francine Hérail, La cour et l'administration du Japon a l'epoque de Heian (Genève: Librairie, 2006).

Original Text 原文


十四日、〈壬寅、〉酉刻蔵人左少弁源師能来、入令侍〔以人伝〕示云、成雅(源)解官事、先向左丞相(源有仁)之処、被向仁和寺了、因御〔所カ〕参也者、亦着冠直衣相逢、師能仰云、去十二日於院陣鳥羽、少将成雅朝臣〈兼尾張守、〉・山城前司頼輔(藤原)闘諍、成雅抜剣切破頼輔面了、所犯不軽之上、諸大夫以上品格者刃傷人、古今未有、成雅早可被解官、余承諾之、師能語云、法皇(鳥羽)帝〈為政被加帝也、〉宣曰、解官・停任同事也、然而以解官為重慎、可仰下解官之由也、又宣曰、被解官之人、自然止昇殿、然而於此事者未曾有、早々可削籍、仍先参内、削籍了、乍両官可解歟、答曰、摂政仰云、先乍両官可解之由宣下後、重法皇帝可 一定、即遣召大外記師安(中原)朝臣仰之、師安云、普通事不書宣旨、此事如何、余云、希有之事也、書宣旨、可懲後代之乱臣・賊士者、師安即書宣旨下二省、余云、如古記〈備忘、〉者、雖管領下二省、是外記之外亦下二省歟、師安云、是古礼也、近代只外記下二省也、〈々々者、文官者仰式、武官者仰兵、〉師能送使者云、重法皇帝仰云、乍両官可解官也、


 内大臣宣、奉 勅、件人去十二日於太上法皇御所辺、手自刃傷散位藤原朝臣頼輔、訪之 往代、未曾有之犯也、宜令解却見任両官者、

   康治二年正月十四日       大炊頭兼大外記助教中原朝臣師安奉

Kundoku 訓読


十四日、〈壬寅みずのえとら〉。とりの刻、蔵人くろうど 左少弁さしょうべん源師能もろよし来たる。人を以て伝え示して云わく、「成雅(源)の解官げかんの事、先に左丞相さじょうしょう(源有仁)に向かふの処、仁和寺にんなじに向かわれ了んぬ。因りて参るところなり」てえり。いそぎ、冠直衣かむりのうしちゃくして相逢あいあう。師能おおせて云わく、「去る十二日院の陣〈鳥羽〉に於て、少将しょうしょう成雅朝臣〈尾張守おわりのかみを兼ぬ〉、山城やましろ前司ぜんじ頼輔よりすけ(藤原)闘諍とうじょうするに、成雅剣を抜き頼輔のおもてを切り破り了んぬ。所犯しょはん、軽からざるの上、諸大夫しょだいぶ以上の品格の者の刃傷人にんじょうにんは、古今未だに有らず。成雅早く解官せらるべし」と。余、これを承諾しょうだくす。師能、語りて云はく、法皇帝ほうおうてい(鳥羽)〈まつりごとを為すにより、帝を加えらるなり。〉せんして曰わく、「解官・停任ちょうにん、同じ事なり。然れども、解官を以て重慎ちょうしんとなす。解官の由を仰せ下すべきなり」と。又宣して曰わく、「解官せらるるの人、自然に昇殿しょうでんとどむ。然れども、この事に於ては未だ曾つて有らず。早々そうそうに籍を削るべし。りて、先ず参内し、せきけずりおわんぬ。両官りょうかんながら くべきか。答へてわく、摂政、おおせて云わく、ず両官ながらくべきのよし宣下せんげの後、重ねて法皇帝 一定いちじょうすべし、と。すなわ大外記だいげき師安(中原) 朝臣をつかわしし、これを仰す。師安、云わく、普通の事は、宣旨を書かず。この事、いかん。、云わく、希けうの事なり。宣旨に書き、後代こうだい乱臣らんしん賊士ぞくしちょうずべし、てえり。師安、即ち宣旨を書き、二省にしょうに下す。余、云く、古記こき備忘ぶぼう〉のごとくは、二省に下すを管領かんりょうすといえども、これ、外記の外ほか、また二省に下すか。師安云わく、これ、古礼これいなり。近代、ただ、外記二省に下すなり。〈二省は、文官ぶんかんしきに仰せ、武官ぶかんひょうに仰す。〉師能、使者を送りて云く、重ねて法皇帝、仰せて云く、両官ながら解官すべきなり。

じゅしいぎょう右近衛権少将うこのえしょうしょうけん尾張守おわりのかみ源朝臣成雅  内大臣宣す。勅をうけたまわるに、件の人、去十二日、太上法皇御所辺に於て、手自てずから散位藤原朝臣頼輔を刃傷す。これを、往代おうだいに訪ぬるに、未曾有の犯なり。宜しく見任げんにん両官を解却げきゃくしむべし、てへり。

   康治二年正月十四日     大炊頭兼大外記助教中原朝臣師安うけたまわ

For the full kundoku notes, click here.

Modern Japanese 現代語


十四日。壬寅。酉の刻に、蔵人左少弁源師能が来た。人づてに伝えて言うには、「[源] 成雅を解官することについて、最初に左丞相 [源有仁] に師能が語って言うには、「[鳥羽]法皇帝〈政治を行っている 籍を{当直の簡 (ふだ) から姓名を}削除しました。」両方の役職をともに解任すべきか。」{と聞いた}。 遣して大外記師安 [中原] 朝臣を呼び出して、その命令を伝えた。師安は、「通常の事では宣旨を書きません。今回の件は、どうしましょうか。」と言った。私は、「{今回のことは}異常事態なので、宣旨を書いて、後の時代の乱臣・賊子を懲らしめるべきである。」と答えた 1 。師安は、すぐに宣旨を書き、二省に下した。私は、「旧記〈忘れた時の備えとして記しておいたもの〉によると、二省に下すのは{外記が}管轄するが、このような場合は外記のほかにが『両方の役職を解任せよ』と命じられました。」と告げてきた。


 内大臣が伝える。「勅によると、『この人は去十二日、太上法皇の御所の辺りで、自身の手で散位 2 藤原朝臣頼輔を太刀で切りつけ傷を負わせた。これは、過去の例に鑑みても、未曾有の犯行である。現在ついている役職をどちらもを罷免せよ。』ということである。」

   康治二年正月十四日    大炊頭兼大外記助教中原朝臣師安がうけたまわった。
  1. ここにある「者」は、頼長はが自分のセリフを閉じるために用いており、伝聞を表すものではない。

  1. 散位(さんみ):律令制で、位階だけあって官職についていない者。蔭位おんいにより官位があって、役職のない者、または職を辞した者などの称。(『広辞苑』抜粋)