Taiki: Kōji 2 {1143} 7.22 Entry

康治二年七月二十二日条
Translated by Yumi Kodama , Emily Warren, Tatyana Kostochka, Sachiko Kawai, Jillian Barndt, and Jitsuya Nishiyama

Twenty-second Day. Hinotono ushi 1 . Sunny and cloudy with occasional rain. Today, in front of Confucius’s portrait, I held a lecture on The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals < It was a private ceremony. >

On the previous day, the doctor of the almanac 2 Norihide was ordered to determine through divination the time and day {for the ceremony}. After this, the ceremony is to be performed on The Day of the Rat < Confucius’s birthday. Moreover, this corresponds to my birth year in the sexagenary cycle 3 .> From the first time {it was performed}, an auspicious day and time was chosen.

In this ceremony, Confucius’s portrait is hung on the northern screen in the first eastern bay of the southern room in the northwestern corridor’s main chamber connected to the Shinden 4 . < Facing south, like in the Royal University Ceremony.> 5

The table was set and food presented in front {of the portrait}. < There was fish. 6 > The round mat for the lecturer 7 was arranged on the southern side. Then, my seat of Korean brocade was arranged. For the literati and discussants, two tatami were arranged in the third bay from the east.

Currently, I am not meeting with those wearing mourning clothes or menstruating women. I am not having sex with women. I need not abstain from fish, Chinese onion, and wild chives, or with monks and nuns, however, earlier today, {I performed my} obeisance to the Kamo Deity 8 < Such is my monthly custom >, so I could not meet with monks and nuns. I bathed at sundown.< I did not wash my hair 9 .>

At the Hour of the Dog , I put on formal clothes . First, I performed obeisance to the Kamo deity.< Even without performing obeisance to the Kamo deity, I would have had to bathe. 10 > Having taken my seat, I paid respects to Confucius . Then, moving one or two steps east, I paid respects to Yan Hui 11 < twice >.

On my order, the eight literati < including the lecturer and the discussants > took their seats. < All of them wore casual dress 12 and caps and sat in two rows of four, facing each other in ascending order 13 from west to east. >

Distinguished graduate of the Royal University’s literature department Fujiwara no Narisuke < who is well-versed in the great meaning of all the Confucian classics > took the first scroll of The Commentary of Zuo and proceeded to the lecturer’s seat. His speech was so superb—it was indescribable. Everyone listened to his words with admiration. The lecture lasted a bit over two hours.

When it was done, Former Provincial Governor of Yamashiro, Sir Minamoto no Sanenaga raised {his issue.} < Following the rules of the biannual Memorial Rites to Confucius ceremony and the stylized debates at the Royal Palace {the day following such ceremonies}, each discussant raises only one topic. Correspondingly, there is also only one topic per discussant. > He asked about {associating the beginning of} summer with the fifth month 14 in the entry from the 22nd year of Duke Zhuang. There were three rounds of back and forth suggestions.< The matter was scrutinized once more after two rounds, at my order. >

When we were finished, Former Provisional Governor of Noto Sir Fujiwara no Takayoshi asked a different question. Over two rounds of back and forth examination they discussed an entry from the 30th year of Duke Xiang about {the shape of} the character 亥 (gai) and the apparent lack of the character 六 (roku) in its lower part 15 . Takayoshi wanted to interrogate the matter a little further, and with my permission, he briefly debated with the lecturer .

Both discussants had assigned seats {among the other literati} but did not sit there {during the discussion part}. When the ceremony was all done, the lecturer returned to his original seat {with the other literati}.

The tray for composition submissions was put out. <{For this purpose, an upside down} cover of a writing box {was used}. The literati, starting with those of the lowest rank, each wrote a Chinese poem {about the talk} 16 >. Courtier-without-post Sir Fujiwara no Tōakira took a seat on the round mat < that was the lecturer’s seat >. This reading went as usual. My humble self was the presenter. This is because Confucius was the host 17 . After the presentation finished, everyone returned to their seats. An emolument was bestowed on the lecturer and each of the discussants. 18

For the lecturer: six folding fans, ten writing brushes, and eight [sticks of] ink. < Each of these were bundled in mulberry paper and placed on top of an open fan, which was included in the total number of fans. >

For each discussant: two fans, five writing brushes, and three [sticks of] ink.

When finished, the lecturer and discussants wrote down the questions and answers. < These were written in different styles. > These texts were placed in a cabinet for future reference.

The following is the format for recording a poem.

In early autumn 19 , inspired by the lecture given in the presence of Confucius's image, I wrote:
A Poem on The Commentary of Zuo. 〈I wrote this line the same length as the first line. {This is} the convention of the House of Ōe. Because I am a disciple of the late Head of the Crown Prince’s Household (Minamoto no Moroyori), I followed the convention of the Ōe . other participants did not do the same.〉
   Inner Palace Minister Senior Second Rank Sir Fujiwara no Yorinaga 20

I omit the details {of the poetry} here. you should be able to imagine it.

Curriculum:
Commentary of Zuo
Commentary of Gongyang
Commentary of Guliang
Book of Rites
Rites of Zhou
Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial
Book of Poems
Book of Documents
Book of Changes
Analects of Confucius
Book of Filial Piety
Laozi and Zhuangzi to be excluded.〉 21

For these, we will meet every time on the Day of the Rat.
  1. This is the fourteenth day in the sixty day cycle.

  1. The doctor of the almanac, or rekihakaze 暦博士, was calendrical specialist from the Yin-Yang Bureau.

  1. This corresponding year in the sexagenary zodiac cycle is called the honmyōnichi 本命日.

  1. This “master quarters of the palace” or the Shinden, is a central hall in a palace built in the shinden mode (shinden zukuri). It functioned both as a ceremonial location and living quarters. This translation is adapted from Mimi Yiengpruksawan, “Phoenix Hall and Symmetries of Replication,” The Art Bulletin Vol. 77, No. 4 (Dec. 1995): 7.

  1. The university held biannual Memorial Rites to Confucius (Sekiten). These rites were “one of the most purely Chinese of court rituals, which even involved animal sacrifices.” Officials performed memorial rites and then someone lectured on a select text. See Robert Borgen, Sugawara no Michizane and the Early Heian Court (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986), 95.

  1. There is a possibility that the fish’s inclusion here is an established custom based on the Kongzi Jiayu. There is one story that famously concerns Confucius receiving a rotten fish from a fisherman and still emphasizing the value in performing sacrifices with it. For an analysis of the passage, see Roel Sterckx, “Confucius Eats” in Of Tripod and Palate: Food, Politics, and Religion in Traditional China, ed. Sterckx (New York: Palgrave, 2005), 51.

  1. The word for lecturer here is kōkyō 講経.

  1. He likely did such obeisances at home, not a shrine.

  1. The Heian nobleman wore oils in his hair and it was sculpted to go with the cap of his rank. It would have been troublesome for Yorinaga to wash his hair, given that he was going to participate in the ceremony soon after.

  1. In this case, Yorinaga would have had to bathe for the lecture and discussion event, even if he didn’t have a ceremony scheduled.

  1. Yan Hui’s name is not explicitly mentioned in the original text. The term that is used there can refer to any past teacher. However, in combination with Confucius and in the context of this ceremony, the term denotes Yan Hui specifically. Yan Hui (c. 521-481 BCE) was Confucius’s favorite disciple and is one of the most important figures in Confucianism. While there was an image of Confucius hanging at this ceremony, it is likely that there was no corresponding image of Yan Hui. So, Yorinaga moving to bow to Yan Hui was a symbolic gesture as if there had been such a portrait.

  1. Kariginu technically means hunting clothes but in the Heian period, kariginu became standard casual clothing for the nobility because of how relatively not restrictive it was.

  1. There are a number of different interpretations available here. It is possible that the literati are lined up in terms of official rank. It is also possible that they are lined up based on their expertise with the Chinese classics. It may even be a mix of the two types of orderings.

  1. The Commentary of Zuo mentions the beginning of the summer as the fifth month even though it would have made more sense to say it was the fourth month.

  1. The lower part of the character.

  1. Although this is not made clear in the text, Kurata Minoru suggests that the poems are about the preceding lecture. See Kurata Minoru, Ouchoubito no kon’in to shinkou 王朝人の婚姻と信仰 (Tokyo: Shinwasha, 2010), 289.

  1. Presenters are typically of lower rank. Even though Yorinaga is very highly ranked, he took on this responsibility as a way to pay respect to the fact that the celebration was being carried out in honor of Confucius.

  1. A gift given to participants of a ceremony—something between payment and a gift. (Kambun Workshop 2007)

  1. Specifically the seventh month of the lunar calendar.

  1. This is the signature on his poem. The signature comes before the poem, rather than after it.

  1. Yorinaga was not interested in Daoist teachings, although such works were required reading in the university. It is likely Yorinaga chose to exclude them to his own personal interests.

Original Text 原文
康治二年七月二十二日条

廿二日、〈丁丑、〉陰晴不定、雨時々降、今日於文宣王(孔子)影前講論春秋左氏伝、〈密々儀也、〉兼日使暦博士憲栄(賀茂)勘日時、自是後毎度子日〈孔子生日也、随亦当余本命日、〉可有此礼、依初度用吉日、〈祀用丁日、丁寧儀、〉其儀、寝殿西北廊母屋南間東一間北障子、懸文宣王影、〈南面、依大学儀、〉其前弁備膳、〈有魚、〉南辺敷円座為講経坐、其南敷高麗一帖為余坐、東第三間二行敷畳為文人及問者坐、余今日不逢服者及月水女、身不女犯、但不憚魚・薤・蒜等、不憚僧尼、但今日先有賀茂拝、〈毎月恒例事、〉仍不逢僧尼、日昏浴、〈無沐、〉

戌刻束帯、〈不帯剣、〉先賀茂拝、〈雖無賀茂拝可有浴、〉次於坐上先拜先聖、〈二度、〉

戌刻束帯、〈不帯剣、〉先賀茂拝、〈雖無賀茂拝可有浴、〉次於坐上先拜先聖、〈二度、〉了東傍行一両歩拜先師、〈二度、〉了依余命、文人八人〈講師・問者在此内、〉就坐、〈皆布衣烏帽、東上対座、〉次文章得業生藤原成佐〈通全経大義、〉持左伝巻巻第一、進就坐講

経、其辞義絶妙、不可得言、衆人側耳歎美、講経一時余、了前山城守源実長朝臣請問、〈請問二〔一〕事、釈奠并同内論義皆問一事、仍是又問一事、〉荘公廿二年経、夏五日〔月〕之疑也、三重、〈二重了、依予命重難之、〉了前能登権守藤孝能朝臣請問如先、但二重、襄卅年伝、亥字無六身之疑也、孝能重少難残、依余命暫与講師相論、此両問者、依位次在文人之坐、不列坐、事了講師退復坐、次置文台、〈硯盡〔蓋〕、文人自下﨟盡〔書〕詩了、〉散位藤遠明朝臣就円坐〈始講経人坐也、〉講之、如常、下官為講師、以文宣王為主之故也、講了各復坐、講師・問者給禄、

講師扇六・筆十・墨八、〈各以檀紙書〔裹カ〕之置扇上、其扇六枚之内也、〉問者各扇二・筆五・墨三、

事了講師・問者書問答、〈其書異裁、〉納厨子備後鑑、

詩書様、

孟秋陪文宣王影前聴講

左伝一首、〈此待等〔行与〕始行同長書之、江家説也、余故春宮大夫(源師頼)弟子也、仍用江説、自余不然、〉

  内大臣正二位藤原朝臣頼長

 已下准可知、
  次第
左伝  公羊  穀梁  礼記  周礼  儀礼
詩   書   周易  論語  孝経 〈除老・荘、〉

  毎度子日可講之、

Kundoku 訓読

廿二日、〈丁丑ひのとのうし、〉陰晴いんせい定まらず。雨時々降る。今日、文宣王ぶんせんのう(孔子)の影前えいぜんに、『春秋左氏伝』を講論す。〈密々みつみつの儀なり。〉兼ねての日、暦博士れきはかせ憲栄のりひで(賀茂)をして日時をかんがえせしむ。これよりのちは毎度子の日ねのひ<孔子の生日せいじつなり。随ってまた余の本命日ほんみょうにちに当たる>にこの礼有るべし。初度しょどによりて吉日を用う。祀は、ひのとの日を用う。丁寧の儀なり。

其の儀、寝殿の西北廊の母屋の南の間の東の一間の北の障子に、文宣王の影をく。〈南面、大学{寮の}儀による。〉其の前に膳を弁備す。<魚有り。>南の辺りに円座を敷きて、講経こうきょうの座と為す。其の南に高麗一帖を敷き、余の坐と為す。東の第三間に二行にして畳を敷き、文人及び問者もんじゃの坐と為す。

余、今日、服者ぶくしゃ及び月水女げっすいにょわず。身は女犯にょぼんせず。但し 魚・おおみらひる等は憚はばからず、僧尼そうにはばからず。但し今日は先に賀茂拝かもはいあり。〈毎月の恒例事こうれいじ、〉仍って僧尼に逢わず。日昏ひぐれて浴す。〈もくすることなし。〉

戌刻いぬのこく束帯そくたいし〈剣をびず。〉、先に賀茂拝す。〈賀茂拝無しといえども、よく有るべし。〉ついで、坐上ざじょうにおいて、先ず先聖せんせいはいす。〈二度。〉おわりて、東のかたわらに行くこと一両歩いちりょうほ先師せんしを拜す。〈二度。〉了りて、余の命により、文人八人〈講師・問者この内に在り〉く。〈皆、布衣ほい烏帽えぼ東上とうじょう対座たいざす。〉次で、文章得業生もんじょうとくごうしょう藤原成佐〈全経ぜんきょう大義たいぎに通ず。〉左伝巻第一を持ち、すすきて講経こうきょうす。その辞義じぎ絶妙ぜつみょうにして、げんべからず。衆人耳をそばだて、歎美たんびす。講経こうきょう一時ひととき余り。おわりて、さきの山城守やましろのかみ源実長みなもとのさねなが朝臣請問しょうもんす。〈請問は一事いちじ釈奠さくてんならびにどう内論義うちろんぎ、皆一事を問う。よりてこれ、また一事を問う。〉荘公しょうこう廿二年にじゅうにねんきょう、夏五月の疑いなり。三重さんじゅう、〈二重にじゅうおわりて、予の命により、重ねてこれをなんず。〉おわりて、さきの能登のとの権守ごんのかみとうの孝能たかよし朝臣請問すること、さきの如し。但し、二重にじゅうじょう卅年さんじゅうねんでんの字、六身ろくしんなきの疑いなり。孝能重ねて少しなんじ残し、余の命によりしばらく講師と相論そうろんす。この両問者りょうもんじゃ位次いじにより文人の坐に在りて、坐に列せず。ことおわりて、講師退しりぞき坐にふくす。次で文台ふみだいを置く。〈すずりふた。文人下﨟げろうより詩を書きおわんぬ。〉散位さんに藤遠明朝臣円坐〈始め講経の人の坐なり。〉に就く。これを講ずること、常の如し。下官げかん、講師とる。文宣王ぶんせんのうを以て主と為すの故なり。講了りておのおの坐に復す。講師・問者に禄を給う。

講師こうじおうぎ六・ふで十・すみ八。〈おのおの檀紙だんしを以てつつみこれを扇の上に置く。その扇は六枚の内なり。〉問者もんじゃは各扇二・筆五・墨三。

事了りて講師・問者は問答を書く。〈その書はさいを異にす。〉厨子ずしに納め、後鑑こうかんそなう。

詩の書様かきよう
孟秋もうしゅう文宣王ぶんせんのう影前えいぜんばい聴講ちょうこう
左伝さでん一首いっしゅ。〈この行と始めの行とを同じ長さにてこれを書く。江家ごうけの説なり。余は故春宮大夫とうぐうのだいぶ源師頼みなもとのもろよりの弟子なり。仍って江説を用う。自余じよは然らず。〉
  内大臣正二位藤原朝臣頼長


 已下いか准じて知るべし。
次第しだい
左伝さでん
公羊くよう
穀梁こくりょう
礼記らいき
周礼しゅうらい
儀礼ぎらい
詩書
周易しゅうえき
論語ろんご
孝経こうきょう
〈老・荘は除く。〉
  毎度まいど子日ねのひにこれを講ずべし。

For full Japanese notes, click here.

Modern Japanese 現代語訳

二十二日、<ひのとうし。>晴れたり曇ったり、そして雨も時々降った。今日、文宣王ぶんせんのう[孔子] の{御}影の前で、『春秋左氏伝』を講じ論じた。<内々の儀式である。>前もって、暦博士憲栄 [賀茂]に日時{の吉凶}を調べさせた。これ以後は、毎度、子の日<孔子が生まれた日である。しかも私の生まれた年の干支に当たる>にこの儀を行うべきである。{しかし今回は}初めてなので、吉日に行う。<{釈奠の}まつりは丁ひのとの日におこなわれる。{この講経は釈奠と同じように}丁寧に行う。>

その儀{は以下の通り。}寝殿の西北廊の母屋の、南の間の東の一間の北の障子に、文宣王の肖像を懸ける。<大学寮の儀に従って、南向きに懸ける。>その{肖像の}前に食膳を準備しそなえておく。<{その膳には}魚が有る。>南の辺りに円座を敷いて、講経の座とする。{更に}その南に高麗{端の畳}一帖を敷き、私の座とする。東の第三の間に{向き合うように}二行に畳を敷き、文人と問者の座とする。

私は、今日は喪に服する者や月経中の女性とは会わない。女性と性行為もしない。ただし、魚・らっきょう・ねぎなどは{食べても}構わず、僧尼{に会うことも本来}は構わない{のだが}、今日は先に賀茂拝<{これは}毎月の恒例{行}事{である}>があるので、僧尼に会わない。日が暮れて身体を洗った。<髪は洗わなかった。>

戌刻を拜した〈二度。〉

それが終わって、私と烏帽子の格好で、東を上座として 向かい合って座った。〉次に、文章得業生で〈中国の古典全ての重要な意義に精通している。〉藤原成佐が『左伝』の第一巻を持ち、言葉を失った。参加者達は耳をそばだてて、感嘆し賛美した。経書の講説が二時間余りあった。

それが終わって、さきの山城守やましろのかみ源実長みなもとのさねなが朝臣が戻った。

次に、儀式で講経の人の座であったところである。〉に着席した。詩を読み上げるやり方等は、いつもの通りである。小生は講師{= 詩を読み上げる役}を担当した。が主席だったからである。詩を読み終わって、それぞれが座に戻った。講師と問者に禄を渡した。

講師こうじには扇 六枚・筆 十本・墨八個。〈それぞれ檀紙だんしで包み、扇の上に置いた。その扇は六枚の内に含まれる。〉問者にはそれぞれ扇二枚・筆五本・墨三個。

今回の講経の終了後、講師・問者は厨子に納め、後世の見本として保管する。

詩の書き方は
孟秋陪文宣王影前聴講
左伝一首

〈この行とはじめの行を同じ長さで書いた。これは大江氏の習わしである。私は故春宮大夫[源師頼みなもとのもろより]の弟子であった。そこで大江氏の習わしに従った。他の人は異なる。〉
  内大臣正二位藤原朝臣頼長

 以下は推察されたい。
 順
 左氏伝・公羊伝・穀梁伝・礼記・周礼・儀礼・詩経・書経・周易・論語 ・孝経〈老子・荘子は除外する。〉
 毎回、の日にこれらの講論を行うこととする。