Tsuikahô no Tsuika 560: On the collection of interest

Translated by Matthew Keller

Item: Concerning what the Board of Inquiry has inquired about {the collection of} interest from the Kamakura residents

Do not extend collection of interest on to the land owners. The subordinates {of the Board of Inquiry} will directly collect from {the debtors}. 1

Seven year of Kouan (1284), eighth month, seventeenth day

  1. It is very uncommon for the deputies of the Monchujo to directly take action.

Original Text 原文
一 問注所申鎌倉住人等利銭事



Kundoku 訓読

一つ 問注所もんちゅうじょが申す鎌倉住人等の利銭りせんの事



Modern 現代語訳

一つ 問注所が申す鎌倉に住んでいる人々の利息について



Tsuikahô no Tsuika 578: Concerning the attendant monks of Tsurugaoka Hachimangu

Translated by Matthew Keller

Item: Concerning the attendant monks of Tsurugaoka Hachimangu and the various halls of Kamakura {Kouan 8 (1285), fourth month, eighth day}

The Office of Adjudicants are to evaluate those people (the candidates), and report to the Board of Councilors. Afterwards, the local magistrates are to report to the Hojo family council.

[note] Make a note concerning how the Tokusou (the patrimonial head of the main branch of the Hojo family which monopolized the post of shogunal regent) the decisions

[note] go back and switch the earlier Hiketsuke translations

Original Text 原文

一 鶴岡八幡宮并鎌倉中諸堂供僧事〈弘安八 四 八〉 於引付勘其人、可申合評定、其後当奉行可申御寄合、

Kundoku 訓読

一つ 鶴岡八幡宮并びに鎌倉中諸堂の供僧ぐそうの事〈弘安八年四月八日〉 引付において、其の人を勘じ、評定に申し合わすべし。其後、当奉行御寄合よりあいに申すべし。

Modern 現代語訳

一つ 鶴岡八幡宮または鎌倉中諸堂の供僧について〈弘安八年(1285)四月八日〉 引付はその人(candidates 供僧)を調べて、{その結果を}評定衆へ報告するように。其後、担当の奉行人は御寄合衆へ報告するように。

Tsuikahô no Tsuika 482: Concerning the ban on the killing of living things

Translated by Emily Warren

Item: concerning the ban on the killing of living things prior to the Iwashimizu Hachimangu Hōjō-e


As for the copy of the Controller Office’s directive 2 , it is as follows: you {the military governor} are to issue an order to the stewards and housemen of Kawachi, Settsu, Shinano, Kii, and Hyūga provinces to immediately put {the ban} into effect in obedience of the council directive. By this command 3 , the directive is thus.

Kōan 3rd year (1281) 7th month, 23rd day

Governor of Sagami (cypher)

To: Lord Mutsu Hikosaburō 4

  1. A memorial service where captured fish and fowl that would normally be eaten are released. Also called a “Life Release” in contemporary Buddhism.

  1. The benkan. Usually this would refer to the Council of State (daijokan), but in this case, it is the Controller’s Office.

  1. This is a shogunal order.

  1. Also called Akahashi Hisatoki (1272-1307). He was the governor of Kawachi, Settsu, and Sagami, then the Rokuhara commissioner for the northern sector, followed by various official posts.

Original Text 原文

一 石清水放生会以前殺生禁断事、官符案如此、早守符旨、可施行之由、可被下知河内、摂津、信濃、紀伊、日向国地頭御家人等之状、依仰執達如件、

 弘安三年七月廿三日  相模守 判


Kundoku 訓読

一 石清水いわしみず放生会ほうじょうえ以前いぜん殺生せっしょう禁断きんだんの事、

官符かんぷあんかくのごとし。早くの旨を守り、施行しぎょうすべきの由、河内、摂津、信濃、紀伊、日向国の地頭御家人等に下知げちせらるべきの状、仰せに依り執達しったつ件の如し。  弘安三年(1281)七月廿三日  相模の守 判   陸奥むつ彦三郎ひこさぶろう殿〈諸国の守護人同前〉

Modern 現代語

一つ    石清水八幡宮の放生会の直前の殺生を禁断することについて


弘安三年七月廿三日  相模の守 判


Tsuikahô no Tsuika 244: Regarding the money exchanged for selling and buying people

Translated by Sachiko Kawai

Item: Regarding the money exchanged for selling and buying people 1

Concerning the {transactions} done before the law {prohibiting the selling and buying of people} 2 , the original owners must return the money {to the buyers}. For the transactions done after the law, do not return {the money to the buyers}. The money paid to the original owners should be allocated {to repair} Gion Bridge and Kiyomizu Temple Bridge. As for the people sold, they should not be returned to the original owners; they should be freed.
Original Text 原文

一 人倫売買直物事 〈寛元三 二 十六〉


Kundoku 訓読

一 人倫売買直物じきもつの事 〈寛元三 二 十六〉   御制ごせい以前の事においては、本主ほんしゅ糺返きゅうへんせらるべし。御制以後の沽却こきゃくに至りては、直物を糺返すべからず。但し、本主分の直物は、祇園・清水寺橋きよみずでらばし用途ようとけらるべし。又、其の身に於ては、本主に返給すべからず。放免ほうめんせらるべきなり。

Modern 現代語訳

一 人身売買における取引時の代金について 〈寛元三年(1245年) 二月十六日〉 


  1. 直物(じきもつ): the money exchanged for [trade]

  1. Also see Nelson, Thomas. "Slavery in Medieval Japan." Monumenta Nipponica 59, no. 4 (2004): 486. See also the notes on Tsuikahô 304.