Shōhei Doi: Craftsmanship, and the Production and Distribution of Pottery for Mortuary Rituals

This paper examines the production system of pottery specially prepared for mortuary rituals during the Kofun Period by identifying craftsmen that made individual pieces. The approach allows us to consider the possibility that an individual craftsman worked on more than one tomb mound, or that pottery was transferred from one mound to another.

Analyses of the craftsmanship of haniwa ceramic cylinders and figurines, and of pottery generally, are an important aspect of Kofun-period archaeology because the results contribute to our understanding of trade networks and spheres of influence of high-ranking elites. And while analyses of the middle and late Kofun Period (400 A.D. and after) have been done, research into craftsmanship during the early Kofun Period (250-400 A.D.) is insufficient, since material cultures at that time were regionally different. To overcome this problem, I have analyzed pottery specially prepared for mortuary rituals that has been excavated in Gunma Prefecture. For the analysis I have chosen storage jars, because the morphologies are standardized and consequently it is not difficult to observe minute differences in the production sequences and techniques. Besides production sequences and techniques, I have looked into traces of tools used for finishing the surface of the pottery. On this basis, I have discovered that the same production techniques and tools were used for pottery at Tomb No. 2 at the Higashihara B site in Maebashi City and at Tomb SZ42 at the Shimogō site in Tamamura Town. These two places are more than 10 kilometers apart, suggesting that the craftsmen moved from the Higashihara-B site to the Shimogō site. My findings are important because while previous research has shown that groups in the western Gunma region were involved in the construction of the Tomb SZ42 at the Shimogō site, my work suggests that craftsmen from the eastern Gunma region contributed to constructing the tomb, and that a few different groups cooperated in building the tomb.



本研究の目的は遺構出土の土器類にみられる製作工程、製作技法、製作痕跡の分析から同一製作者の製品を想定すること(=同工品分析)によって、遺跡間、特に墳墓間の土器または製作者の移動を分析し、古墳時代の葬送儀礼に関わる供献土器の製作体制を解明することにある。従来、墳墓における埴輪や供献土器類の生産体制の分析は被葬者の影響力や交易範囲を示すため古墳時代の研究の中で重要視されている。しかし、全国的に規格化された前方後円墳の造営が始まる古墳時代中期(A.D.400~)の分析が中心であり、各地域の多様性が残る古墳時代前期(A.D.250~)の生産体制の解明は分析方法・分析事例を含め未だ不十分であると言える。 本発表では、群馬県域内の墳墓出土の供献土器に対して上記の同工品分析を行った。対象資料としては供献土器の中でも規格性を備え、製作工程・製作技術に差異が認められやすい壺形土器類に着目し、①製作工程、②製作技術、③工具痕跡のマッチングを行った。分析の結果、前橋市東原B遺跡2号方形周溝墓出土資料と高崎市玉村町下郷遺跡SZ42出土資料において製作技術、工具痕跡が一致した。この結果から、東原B遺跡第2号方形周溝墓から下郷遺跡SZ42への段階的な造営に際して、直線距離約10㎞以上離れた地点間で製作工人集団または工具の移動が想定された。従来群馬県西部地域の集団とつながりが深いと考えられていた下郷遺跡SZ42の造営に関して、群馬県東部地域からの工人の移動が新たに認められたことで、墳墓の造営に際して複数地域の集団の協力があった可能性を示唆できた。