Tsuikahô 296-297 : On Commerse Regulations

Translated by Chris Bovberg and Kaitlin Forgash

Kenchō 5th year {1253}, 10th month, 11th day; hinoe tatsu. Official prices 1 have been established for commerce. 2 Additionally, the regulations regarding coerced sales 3 have also been strengthened. Onozawa Fifth-ranked third-level manager of the Left Inner Palace Guard Novice 4 and Uchijima Third Level Lieutenant of the Inner Palace Guards 5 Moritsune Novice serve as magistrates.

Regarding the official prices for firewood and fodder 6      

Charcoal One horse-load 7 for 100 mon       

Firewood A bundle of thirty  

Miscanthus grasses 8  One horse-load

Straw One horse-load    

Rice bran 9  One horse-load

In recent years the prices of the above miscellaneous goods have risen excessively. Therefore, this order has been sent to the merchants. Also, these standards have been established for Wakaetsu 10 lumber, as a result of the difficulty of construction due to the lack of regulation in recent years. The length of a log shall eight or seven shaku. 11 If any are insufficient, they shall be confiscated. The magistrates shall announce the details.
Horses in the  Illustrated Biography of Prince Shôtoku  (14th c.) from the  Metropolitan Museum of Art  collections. (Creative Commons)

Horses in the Illustrated Biography of Prince Shôtoku (14th c.) from the Metropolitan Museum of Art collections. (Creative Commons)

Original Text 原文



   炭一駄代百文  薪三十束〈三把別百文〉

   萱木一駄〈八束代五十文〉  藁一駄〈八束代五十文〉





Kundoku 訓読



   すみ一駄いちだ代百文  薪三十のそく〈三別百文〉

   かや木一駄〈八束代五十文〉  わら一駄〈八束代五十文〉



Modern 現代語訳



     炭は一匹の馬が持てる分の値段は百文 薪三十本の束は(三束で百文)

     萱の草一匹の馬が持てる分は(八束の値段は五十文) 藁一匹の馬が持てる分は(八束の値段は五十文)



  1. 直法(じきほう)jikihou = official price. Chūsei seiji shakai shisō, p.112.

  1. 利売(りばい)ribai = commerce. Literally, “selling for profit”

  1. 押買(おしかい)oshikai = forced sale under market price

  1. 小野沢左近大夫入道=Onozawa Nakazane (仲実). Priestly name Kooren (光蓮). His name appears frequently in Kamakura documents as the responsible magistrate. The Onozawa family served as personal followers (被官) of the Hojo tokuso (main line). Chūsei seiji shakai shisō, p.112.

  1. 将監(しょうげん)- third level lieutenant of the 近衛府(このえふ)

  1. 馬蒭(まぐさ)literally, “horse fodder”

  1. 一駄(いちだ) a “horse load.” The amount a long bag slung over each side of the horse can hold, all together .

  1. 萱(かや)grasses used to thatch roofs. (日本国語大辞典)

  1. 糠(ぬか)can be used as fuel (oil), fertilizer, fodder, etc.

  1. 和賀江津(わかえつ)harbor built in 1232 in present-day Iijima, Kanagawa ken;  a departure point for lumber guilds (中世政治社会思想 p.113)

  1. 尺(しゃく): a unit of measurement; approximately 30 cm (Shiryō hensanjo database)